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Minggu, 02 Agustus 2009

Membaca Pemikiran Habermas



Resensi, Seputar Indonesia, 02 Agustus 2009

Filsuf dan sosiolog kondang dari Universitas Frankfurt, Jerman,Jurgen Habermas kembali menjadi bidikan akademisi F Budi Hardiman.

Kali ini ia membidik pemikiran Habermas mengenai demokrasi. berhasil mengelaborasi tradisi pemikiran neo-Marxis yang melatarbelakangi teori kritis Habermas dan karya awalnya tahun 1970-an dalam bidang filsafat pengetahuan melalui buku

Kritik Ideologi, Menyingkap Pertautan Pengetahuan dan Kepentingan Bersama Jurgen Habermas (2009), dan karya-karya Habermas tahun 1970-an dan 1980-an lewat buku Menuju Masyarakat Komunikatif, Ilmu,Masyarakat,Politik,dan Postmodernisme Menurut Jurgen Habermas (2009), kini filsuf dari STF Driyarkara ini kembali memahami dan menguji secara kritis kontribusi-kontribusi teori diskursus

Habermas untuk teori demokrasi dan negara hukum modern dalam sebuah buku berjudul Demokrasi Deliberatif, Menimbang ’Negara Hukum’ dan ’Ruang Publik’ dalam Teori Diskursus Jurgen Habermas( 2009). Menurut Habermas, komunikasi sudah selalu merupakan ciri dasar kehidupan bersama manusia. Maka, tuntutan teori demokrasi tidak lain daripada sebuah radikalisasi dari struktur-struktur komunikasi yang lama sudah ada di dalam negara hukum modern.

Dengan demikian negara hukum yang faktual sedikit demi sedikit dapat mendekati asas-asas normatifnya sendiri. Makna judul karyanya, Faktizitat und Geltung (Fakta dan Kesahihan), adalah bagaimana Habermas meletakkan posisi pemikirannya di dalam tegangan itu.

Untuk mewujudkan imbauan teori klasik tentang demokrasi itu, Habermas mencoba menghubungkan pendiriannya dengan keadaankeadaan empiris masyarakatmasyarakat kompleks dewasa ini. Struktur-struktur komunikasi yang terkandung di dalam konstitusi negara hukum demokrasi dimengerti oleh Habermas sebagai sebuah proyek yang belum selesai, tetapi dapat diwujudkan.

Namun,agar keadaan-keadaan empiris masyarakat-masyarakat kompleks itu dapat didekatkan pada tujuan proyek tersebut, haruslah ada sebuah model yang sesuai untuk demokrasi. Sebuah model yang secara sosiologis dapat menjelaskan dinamika komunikasi politis di dalam negara hukum demokratis yang ada. Model yang sesuai dengan konsep proseduralis tentang negara hukum itu adalah model demokrasi deliberatif (deliberative demokratie).

Model deliberatif ini menekankan pentingnya prosedur komunikasi untuk meraih legitimasi hukum di dalam sebuah proses pertukaran yang dinamis antara sistem politik dan ruang publik yang dimobilisasi secara kultural. Dalam model demokrasi deliberatif ini Habermas mencoba untuk menghubungkan tesis hukumnya, yaitu tesis hukum sebagai medium integrasi sosial dengan sebuah teori sosiologis tentang demokrasi.

Hasilnya menarik: konsepkonsep dasarnya seperti konsep tindakan komunikatif, lebenswelt (dunia-kehidupan), dan diskursus praktis sekarang beroperasi di dalam kerangka sebuah teori demokrasi (hlm 126–127). Lebih dari itu, dalam model demokrasi deliberatif, banyak hal dikonsentrasikan pada tuntutan demokratisasi “ruang-antara” pemilihan umum.

Tentu saja makna pemilihan umum tidak boleh diperkecil karena pemilihan umum merupakan locus para warga negara menentukan diri mereka. Akan tetapi, pemilihan umum bukan locus satu-satunya. Jika demokrasi ingin dimengerti secara deliberatif, pemilihan umum dapat dianggap sebagai “hasil pemakaian publik atas hak-hak komunikatif’ (offentlicher Gebrauch de kommunikativen Freiheiten)” yang berlangsung terus-menerus.

Menurut Habermas, hak-hak komunikatif para warga negara terlaksana terutama di dalam diskursus- diskursus informal yang dapat dilaksanakan secara inklusif dan dapat mempersoalkan segala tema relevan yang mungkin.

Demokratisasi “ruang-antara” pemilihan umum berarti para warga negara memiliki kemungkinan untuk mengungkap kan pendapatpendapat mereka sendiri secara publik dan mempersoalkan segala tema yang relevan untuk masyarakat supaya suara-suara yang sensitif terhadap masalah ini dikelola oleh sistem politik yang ada.

Ruang demokratis seperti itu, tempat para warga negara dapat menyatakan opini-opini, kepentingan kepentingan, dan kebutuhan-kebutuhan mereka secara diskursif adalah gagasan pokok ruang publik politis (politische Offentlichkeit) yang menjadi leitmotiv pemikiran Habermas sejak Habilitationsschrift- nya Strukturwandel der Offentlichkeit (perubahan struktur ruang publik) (hlm 133).

Dengan demikian, jika bangsa ini ingin mewujudkan ruang publik politis, pemerintah bersama pihak terkait harus bertanggung jawab atas adanya dugaan pelanggaran pemilihan umum presiden dan wakil presiden (pilpres) yang baru saja usai, baik berupa pelanggaran administrasi, kisruhnya daftar pemilih tetap (DPT) maupun keterlibatan pihak asing.

Lebih lanjut, melalui buku ini, alumnus Hochschule fur Philosophie Munchen, Jerman, pada tahun 2001 ini menunjukkan betapa Habermas telah berhasil merekonstruksi paham negara hukum klasik dengan paradigma komunikasi. Kendatipun tidak dapat mengakhiri problematika klasik tentang legitimasi demokratis, teori diskursus sekurang-kurangnya dapat menunjukkan bahwa upaya pencarian legitimasi mempunyai sebuah ciri diskursif.

Selain menunjukkan kekuatan teori diskursus, F Budi Hardiman juga berhasil dalam mengurai betapa teori diskursus mengandung beberapa kesulitan dalam aplikasinya dalam politik riil. Rekonstruksi negara hukum demokratis lewat teori diskursus tersebut dalam arti tertentu memperlemah unsur-unsur kritis yang masih terkandung di dalam karyakarya Habermas yang terdahulu.

Melalui karya ini, filsuf kelahiran Semarang yang genap berusia 47 tahun pada 31 Juli 2009 nanti ini semakin mengokohkan eksistensi bahwasanya ia merupakan tokoh pemikir yang konsisten memperkenalkan pemikiran-pemikiran pembaru Mazhab Frankfurt Jurgen Habermas,khususnya di Indonesia.

Pada akhirnya, meminjam istilah Franz Magnis-Suseno dalam komentarnya,buku ini tidak hanya memperkenal kan pemikiran Habermas tentang demokrasi,melainkan juga memiliki relevansi tinggi bagi kita di Indonesia.(*)

Benni Setiawan,
Mahasiswa Program Pascasarjana
Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN)
Sunan Kalijaga,Yogyakarta

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